Current practice sheets

CPS1 - Concrete Footbridges

Owing to their small scale and light load-bearing requirements, footbridges offer considerable freedom for engineering innovation when compared with most other bridge types. Pedestrian footbridges over busy roads or other obstacles give a safe passage for various types of user. Practicability and aesthetics are important considerations and footbridges are less costly than other types of bridge, so their size and form are not necessarily constrained by economics.

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CPS2 - Bridge Durability

This Study tour examines the experience of integral bridges that has been built up over several decades in North America, and assesses the methods used there for their design. It disseminates the finding and makes recommendations for suitable forms of construction for integral bridges in the UK.

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CPS3 - Integral Bridges

Integral bridges span from one abutment, over intermediate supports to the other abutment without any movement or joint in the deck. Their advantages are greater durability and lower maintenance costs when compared with jointed bridges. This CPS covers the background of integral bridges, response to movement, response of abutments, pavement design and comments on various foundation options.

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CPS4 - Prestressed Concrete Beams

This CPS reviews prestressed concrete bridge beams that provide an industry standards developed over 50 years, with proven durability and suitability for solid slab, beam and slab, and voided decks in bridges, decking for ports, podia, etc. They offer options for simply supported, continuous and integral construction techniques. This CPS looks at design, details and beam and deck types and forms of deck construction and other issues.

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CPS5 - Bridge Joints

A bridge expansion joint supports the surfacing, or provides a running surface, across an expansion gap. This CPS briefly reviews and examines bridge expansion joint (specified in BD33/94). Details are given of: Buried joints, Asphaltic plug joints (APJ), Nosing joints, Reinforced elastomeric joints (RE), and Cantilever comb or tooth joints (CT). It comments on Water management, Joint installation, Inspection and maintenance.

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CPS6 - Corrosion Inhibitors

Corrosion inhibitors are becoming an accepted method in the UK of improving the durability of reinforced concrete in environments affected by chlorides. They act by suppressing the electrochemical corrosion reactions that can occur on the surface of reinforcing bars in concrete due to chloride ingress. This CPS examines the different types of corrosion inhibitor: 'integral' (or cast-in), and 'migrating'.

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CPS7 - Strengthening of concrete bridges with fibre composites

This CPS examines fibre composite materials, using carbon, glass or aramid fibres in combination with epoxy resins or adhesives widely used for strengthening concrete bridges. The materials mentioned, often referred to as fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP), are: pre-formed fibre composite plates: sheets of fibre.; pre-formed fibre composite shells; pre-formed shear straps and composite rods or strips.

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CPS8 - Precast Reinforced Concrete Arch & Portal Units

This CPS examines then use of precast reinforced concrete arches and portals, which have been used throughout the world for the last twenty-five years. Depending on the location, use, ground conditions and depth of cover a structure comprising two, three or four elements can be used to provide spans from 2.5m to 20m with internal heights up to 8m. A more detailed review is given in Technical Guide 12.

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CPS9 - Bridge Deck Waterproofing

Waterproofing of bridge decks is recognised in UK as a vital and necessary operation to enhance the longevity and durability of the structure. Waterproofing represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. This CPS covers the background, sheet and liquid systems, performance requirements and site practice and application.

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CPS10 - Controlled Permeability Formwork

This CPS explains what happens with migration at the form-face, and shows that better quality can be obtained by the use of controlled permeability formwork (CPF) than when cast against normal wood or steel formwork. The use of CPF is shown to increase cement content of the cover region, while at the same time permanently reducing the w/c ratio, porosity and permeability and a reduction in surface blowholes and blemishes.

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CPS12 - Permanent Formwork for Composite Bridge Decks

Permanent formwork, unlike traditional formwork, is left in place for the life of the element it is supporting. This CPS describes this system used on composite bridge decks where it provides a permanent soffit between the main support beams. It describes both structurally participating and non-structurally participating permanent formwork and outlines the benefits, the highway requirements and durability.

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CPS13 - Incrementally Launched Concrete Bridges

The first incrementally launched bridge was by Leonhardt in Venezuela in 1962 and the techniques are now commonly used worldwide. This CPS describes this method which in the right circumstances can offer substantial savings in time, and can offer much greater value in comparison to other forms of construction.

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CPS14 - Jacked Box Underbridges using the Ropkins System®

This CPS describes a proprietary method by which large concrete boxes are installed beneath existing railways or highway infrastructure to provide new underbridges with little or no disruption to traffic flow. It explains the construction method and the anti-drag system used, shield configuration and design, ground conditions and improvement and surface settlements. And gives two cases studies.

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CPS15 - Precast Segmental Concrete Bridges

This CPS provides an introduction to precast concrete bridges using box girder match cast segments up to 4m in length that are then stressed together to form the complete structure. It briefly covers the precasting techniques and design, and erection methods, which can be used for simply supported or continuous structures constructed span-by-span or as balanced cantilevers.

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