Publications

Technical Guides

Technical Guides represent a consolidated body of work on a specific subject area. They are typically commissioned to provide a detail explanation of current practice in the subject area.

CBDG Members can request discounted hard copies by emailing enquiries@cbdg.org.uk

This Study tour examines the experience of integral bridges that has been built up over several decades in North America, and assesses the methods used there for their design. It disseminates the finding and makes recommendations for suitable forms of construction for integral bridges in the UK.

Published: 1997
Pages: 93

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This Technical Guide provides a comprehensive guide to test selection, procurement and measures to reduce risks of inaccuracy. It also gives a detailed explanation of the key phases of structural maintenance including condition monitoring, diagnosis, and solution development. It also covers physical and laboratory tests and probability of corrosion.

Published: 2002
Pages: 113

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There is a growing interest in replacing steel with advanced composites made of high modulus fibres embedded in a suitable resin. This Guide reviews the use of the materials in the various applications, identifies suitable design approaches where these have been developed and indicates areas in which further development is required.

Published: 2000
Pages: 36

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This examines and discusses proportions and silhouettes, shape and integration of the bridge piers, deck and abutments and surface finish, texture and weathering. This study also recognised that designers need to achieve a balance between structural integrity, economy, buildability and durability.

Published: 2000
Pages: 27

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This report examines construction methods and details that contribute to speeding up the construction of concrete bridges. It sets out to help clients, developers, designers and contractors to understand better the factors that contribute to fast construction and to appreciate some essential requirements and consequences of achieving a short delivery period.

Published: 2005
Pages: 55

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This gives an overview of and references on the issues related to use, production and placement practices and the test methods used for HSC. The advantages of using HSC can enable use of smaller or fewer structural components, the possibility of achieving longer spans, achieving lower maintenance costs and ensuring longer service lives.

Published: 2005
Pages: 44

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This focuses on the use of SCC in concrete bridges, and covers its history, the materials used, the production and construction process, the properties of fresh and hardened SCC, quality, economy and increased health and safety benefits, specification and conformity testing, limitations and potential pitfalls and examines further research and development.

Published: 2005
Pages: 54

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This report gives an overview of LWAC, and examines the benefits of using LWAC that are mainly related to cost savings as a result of the reduction in dead weight. In particular, smaller foundations, less reinforcement, prestressing steel and formwork all contribute to greater economy without compromising structural capability or durability.

Published: 2006
Pages: 41

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This comprehensive report aims to further develop and advance assessment techniques and procedures and will be of great assistance to all those involved in the assessment process. The whole area of assessment has become increasingly important over the last decade as the UK bridge stock ages and the demands placed upon it increases.

Published: 2007
Pages: 173

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The increasing demands placed on UK bridges, including the introduction of heavier vehicles and the motorway widening programme, have led to a major re-evaluation of bridge strengthening. This report primarily focuses on the different types of strengthening for reinforced and prestressed concrete highway and railway bridges and for masonry arch bridges.

Published: 2008
Pages: 64

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This new modular system incorporates easily transportable precast concrete shell units that support and combine compositely with the post-tensioned, in-situ concrete core, designed to provide designers with a concrete solution for medium span bridges. It gives structural details, construction options, costs, scheme drawings and construction programmes for case study examples.

Published: 2008
Pages: 38

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This report on the use of precast concrete arch structures provides guidance on good practice based on the experience of the industry suppliers. The structures given have spans form 3-20m and a length of 2.5-361m. It is not intended to be a detailed design guidance for experienced structural engineers and advisors on the use of such structures. The document is also intended to enable the Highways Agency to continue benefiting from appropriate use of such structures.

Published: 2009
Pages: 40

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This document describes the design of a two-span integral concrete bridge, comprising precast pretensioned concrete beams with a reinforced concrete in-situ deck, to the relevant European Standards - applied in accordance with their UK National Annex.The guidance given is with respect to pretensioned concrete but some of the guidance given is equally valid in the design of a reinforced concrete or posttensioned concrete bridge structure.

Published: 2010
Pages: 91 Members login here to download a free pdf version

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This guide summarises all the key areas concerning concrete bridge decks. It will allow teams to select the most suitable bridge deck type dependent on the main series of spans, or allow them to select the best span for a particular bridge type. Detailed descriptions are given of fifteen bridge types to aid this critical process. Beneficially, the cost data may be extended by use of separate factors to determine costs into the future in all locations. Click HERE to download the free spreadsheet that contains a sample table - bridge specific rates - costs factors - and a sample factored table.

Published: 2015
Pages: 115

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This technical guide addresses the many small to medium-span road and rail bridge replacement schemes. Such schemes need to be built safely, simply and quickly across live traffic. The solutions shown cover best practices for both the design and construction, with in-situ and precast solutions described. An innovative new system for casting spans in-situ is described in some detail. The railway methods described using precast concrete also allow bridges to be fully completed within normal weekend possessions.

Published: 2017
Pages: 40

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This guide presents the different temporary works used in concrete bridge construction, describing both their design and installation, and their interaction with permanent works. A key aim is to provide permanent works designers with an understanding of temporary works and how these influence their design work. In addition, it outlines to contractors and temporary works designers constraints on their design and construction due to the permanent works. It also informs all construction parties, including bridge owners, permanent and temporary works designers and constructors about the range of different temporary works used for concrete bridges.

Published: 2020
Pages: 76

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Technical papers

Technical papers summarise specific issues, concerns or practices highlighted by the industry. As such the information may now be considered to be archival material with industry standards, codes and guidance superseding the information reported.

These are downloadable as free pdfs to CBDG members.

TP1 - An Overview of the Thaumasite form of sulfate attack

Noting that concretes made with Portland cements are vulnerable to attack by sulfates, usually originating in the ground this paper examines the minerals formed by this attack (ettringite and gypsum). It also examines the formation of thaumasite (recognised as a separate form of sulfate attack), which has the potential to affect a wide variety of structures. It gives case studies and reference to design guidance.

Published August 2001

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TP2 - Towards the Design of Soil Loading for Integral Bridges

Experiments are described and results are presented to indicate that the peak stresses bear a close correlation to the magnitude of the thermal length changes of the bridge deck through the rotation of the abutments which are caused. The mechanics of the backfill soil during the cyclic straining process are explained. Shortcomings in our current knowledge for providing a comprehensive design method are highlighted.

Published August 2001

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TP3 - Guide to Compressive Membrane Action

The enhancement in slab strength, due to arching or Compressive Membrane Action (CMA), has been incorporated into some design standards; BD81/01, 'Use of Compressive Membrane Action in Bridge Deck Slabs'. This paper comments on these design codes, reviews the research undertaken and outlines in detail the method by which the capacity of a laterally restrained slab can be calculated.

Published June 2002

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TP4 - Flush Bond Tests

Previous research has provided a formula for the calculation of bond strength when reinforcement is delaminated to the safe level of half barrel. Where delamination is not quite as deep a more accurate calculation of bond strength could be obtained by interpolating between bond for half barrel exposure and bond for flush exposure. This paper describes bond tests in a beam situation to determine bond strength with the concrete cast flush with the top of the main bars. The tests comprised of two series, each of four beams.

Published June 2002

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TP5 - The Effect of Shear Enhancement on the Resistance of an Infill Deck

The term infill deck is used to describe a form of construction consisting of precast, prestressed-concrete inverted T-beams, or similar, placed side by side, with "infil!" concrete cast between and over them to form a solid slab. The Highways Agency carried out research on the shear capacity of infill decks in two specific regions - where the structure was flexurally cracked and flexurally uncracked. This paper reports on an extended range of tests to cover the short shear-span region where shear enhancement might be present.

Published February 2003

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TP6 - Guidance on Joining Concrete Bridges

The paper reviewed current knowledge on the construction of joints between existing and new construction, reports on the views of members of the CBDG on anticipated problems with jointing techniques adopted in practice, and provides a report on joining existing construction to new, setting out the constraints, the significant factors for consideration and a description of current methods for construction joints.

Published May 2003

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TP7 - Testing of High Strength Concrete Beams with Limestone Aggregates

This report summarizes the research work undertaken to assess the shear resistance of reinforced concrete made with limestone aggregate. Six beams without shear reinforcement were tested to failure under continuous deflection control and all of the beams failed in shear, as designed. It recommends further research work is carried out for the shear strength of beams with and without shear reinforcement and with a range of aggregate types, sources and concrete strength, and proposes that a limit is placed on the design shear strength of reinforced concrete beams.

Published July 2003

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TP8 - Implementation of European Concrete and Aggregate Standards and
their influence on the use of Recycled Aggregates in Concrete for Bridges

This paper reports on recent changes in British and European Standards and Specifications that influence the use of recycled aggregates in concrete. On 1 December 2003 the European and its complementary British Standards for concrete, EN 206-1 and BS 8500 Parts 1 and 2, were fully implemented. These standards set out various requirements for aggregates used as a component in concrete and these are summarized in this paper.

Published March 2004

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TP9 - Fast Construction - Segmental and Launched Bridges

This paper considers a number of developments in precast segmental and incrementally launched bridge construction methods and highlights particular developments in both methods, by looking at bridges recently constructed in the UK, Ireland, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong. The paper also describes the successful design and construction of externally post-tensioned concrete box structures. The importance of taking into account temporary loading conditions in both the construction stage and the service life has been highlighted.

Published September 2005

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TP10 - Long Term Monitoring of Stresses behind Three Integral Bridge Abutments

This report focuses on comparing the measured seasonal trends of stress change with the historic data. The distributions of stress with depth acting on the abutment are compared with the design values evaluated using BA42. Included in the design advice are recommendations for revisions to BA 42 which are appropriate for integral bridges constructed from concrete.

Published January 2006

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TP11 - A Case Study of Cathodic Protection using Sacrificial Anodes

This describes the installation of the sacrificial anode cathodic protection (SACP) systems. The results from the monitoring are presented showing how the system has performed over the first year after installation. Fosroc Ltd (Fosroc) supplied the sacrificial anodes installed monitoring system. This report has been prepared jointly by Fosroc and RMBC.

Published April 2006

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Technical Notes

This series of 12 Technical Notes was originally prepared by the Technical Committee and published in the Institution of Structural Engineers' journal Structural Engineer in 2014.

Introduction to Concrete Bridges examines the benefits of concrete bridges, including Aesthetics and Finishes, Sustainabilty and Environment, Durability and Maintenance, Precast vs In-situ Concrete. bridges in the UK.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Examination of the initial parameters that might determine the best layout for a new bridge, including Articulation and Fixity, Joints and Bearings, Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete. Integral Bridges.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Describes the basics of prestressing and the application to Pre-tensioned Bridges, Post-Tensioned Bridges and Partially Prestressed Bridges.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Examines the selection process for the most suitable type of concrete bridge, which may be split into in-situ and precast options and considers the programme, risk and cost issues.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Examines the various types of formwork and falsework needed to construct a concrete bridge.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Examines the in-situ construction methods for various types of concrete bridge, including slab bridges, twin rib bridges, span by span box bridges and balanced cantilever bridges.

Published: 2014
Pages: 4

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Examines the precast construction methods for a bridge, including standard precast inverted T/Y, I or U beams, bespoke precast T, I or U beams, precast segmental box girders with short segments, whole span precast box girders, incrementally launched box girders and modular precast system with short shell segments.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Examines the various methods for the design and construction of concrete arches, frames, tunnels and jacked boxes, which cover the whole range of bridges from the smallest culverts to the largest concrete spans in the world. durability.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Examines the various high performance concretes that might be used for concrete bridges, to make them either quicker and easier to build, or more economic. The advantages of high strength, lightweight, fibre reinforced and self-compacting concretes are described, together with the use of new materials that can replace steel for both reinforcement and prestressing.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Examines the detailing that is peculiar to concrete bridges. These need to consider buildability, durability, maintainability, safety, aesthetics and weather. To protect details within the concrete the characteristics of the concrete must also be specified, with due regard to site conditions. Such specifications will ensure that the bridge has a low maintenance working life.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Examines the special types of concrete bridge – previous articles described all the in-situ, precast, arch and frame options. Concrete cable-stayed, extradosed and stressed ribbon bridges are all described below, together with the special features of concrete footbridges and railway bridges.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Examines the long-term management of concrete bridges and looks at the inspection and assessment of the bridge over its entire life, where some maintenance might be required and some strengthening might be needed to upgrade the bridge to a new load configuration or revised layout.

Published: 2014
Pages: 5

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Current Practice Sheets

This series of 15 advice notes summarise various topics deemed informative. They are typically authored by members and reviewed in committee. Despite the series title 'Current Practice', these sheets may not be fully conversant with the latest Standards and practices. Although still considered to be informative, please always take note of the published date.

These are downloadable as free pdfs to CBDG members.

Despite the series title 'Current Practice', these sheets may not be fully conversant with the latest Standards and practices. Although still considered to be informative, please always take note of the published date.

CPS1 - Concrete Footbridges

Owing to their small scale and light load-bearing requirements, footbridges offer considerable freedom for engineering innovation when compared with most other bridge types. Pedestrian footbridges over busy roads or other obstacles give a safe passage for various types of user. Practicability and aesthetics are important considerations and footbridges are less costly than other types of bridge, so their size and form are not necessarily constrained by economics.

Published 2011

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CPS2 - Bridge Durability

This Study tour examines the experience of integral bridges that has been built up over several decades in North America, and assesses the methods used there for their design. It disseminates the finding and makes recommendations for suitable forms of construction for integral bridges in the UK.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS3 - Integral Bridges

Integral bridges span from one abutment, over intermediate supports to the other abutment without any movement or joint in the deck. Their advantages are greater durability and lower maintenance costs when compared with jointed bridges. This CPS covers the background of integral bridges, response to movement, response of abutments, pavement design and comments on various foundation options.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS4 - Prestressed Concrete Beams

This CPS reviews prestressed concrete bridge beams that provide an industry standards developed over 50 years, with proven durability and suitability for solid slab, beam and slab, and voided decks in bridges, decking for ports, podia, etc. They offer options for simply supported, continuous and integral construction techniques. This CPS looks at design, details and beam and deck types and forms of deck construction and other issues.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS5 - Bridge Joints

A bridge expansion joint supports the surfacing, or provides a running surface, across an expansion gap. This CPS briefly reviews and examines bridge expansion joint (specified in BD33/94). Details are given of: Buried joints, Asphaltic plug joints (APJ), Nosing joints, Reinforced elastomeric joints (RE), and Cantilever comb or tooth joints (CT). It comments on Water management, Joint installation, Inspection and maintenance.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS6 - Corrosion Inhibitors

Corrosion inhibitors are becoming an accepted method in the UK of improving the durability of reinforced concrete in environments affected by chlorides. They act by suppressing the electrochemical corrosion reactions that can occur on the surface of reinforcing bars in concrete due to chloride ingress. This CPS examines the different types of corrosion inhibitor: 'integral' (or cast-in), and 'migrating'.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS7 - Strengthening of concrete bridges with fibre composites

This CPS examines fibre composite materials, using carbon, glass or aramid fibres in combination with epoxy resins or adhesives widely used for strengthening concrete bridges. The materials mentioned, often referred to as fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP), are: pre-formed fibre composite plates: sheets of fibre.; pre-formed fibre composite shells; pre-formed shear straps and composite rods or strips.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS8 - Precast Reinforced Concrete Arch & Portal Units

This CPS examines then use of precast reinforced concrete arches and portals, which have been used throughout the world for the last twenty-five years. Depending on the location, use, ground conditions and depth of cover a structure comprising two, three or four elements can be used to provide spans from 2.5m to 20m with internal heights up to 8m. A more detailed review is given in Technical Guide 12.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS9 - Bridge Deck Waterproofing

Waterproofing of bridge decks is recognised in UK as a vital and necessary operation to enhance the longevity and durability of the structure. Waterproofing represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. This CPS covers the background, sheet and liquid systems, performance requirements and site practice and application.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS10 - Controlled Permeability Formwork

This CPS explains what happens with migration at the form-face, and shows that better quality can be obtained by the use of controlled permeability formwork (CPF) than when cast against normal wood or steel formwork. The use of CPF is shown to increase cement content of the cover region, while at the same time permanently reducing the w/c ratio, porosity and permeability and a reduction in surface blowholes and blemishes.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS12 - Permanent Formwork for Composite Bridge Decks

Permanent formwork, unlike traditional formwork, is left in place for the life of the element it is supporting. This CPS describes this system used on composite bridge decks where it provides a permanent soffit between the main support beams. It describes both structurally participating and non-structurally participating permanent formwork and outlines the benefits, the highway requirements and durability.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS13 - Incrementally Launched Concrete Bridges

The first incrementally launched bridge was by Leonhardt in Venezuela in 1962 and the techniques are now commonly used worldwide. This CPS describes this method which in the right circumstances can offer substantial savings in time, and can offer much greater value in comparison to other forms of construction.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS14 - Jacked Box Underbridges using the Ropkins System®

This CPS describes a proprietary method by which large concrete boxes are installed beneath existing railways or highway infrastructure to provide new underbridges with little or no disruption to traffic flow. It explains the construction method and the anti-drag system used, shield configuration and design, ground conditions and improvement and surface settlements. And gives two cases studies.

Reviewed 2014

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CPS15 - Precast Segmental Concrete Bridges

This CPS provides an introduction to precast concrete bridges using box girder match cast segments up to 4m in length that are then stressed together to form the complete structure. It briefly covers the precasting techniques and design, and erection methods, which can be used for simply supported or continuous structures constructed span-by-span or as balanced cantilevers.

Reviewed 2014

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Miscellaneous

With all published material there is always some which fall outside an established category of series.

Depending on the source material, these are either downloadable as free pdfs to CBDG members, purchasable from the Concretebookshop, or free to all.

CBDG Members can request discounted hard copies by emailing enquiries@cbdg.org.uk

This publication reviews the historical development from arches to the development of prestressed concrete bridges. Superstructure cross-sections and construction methods are outlined including the classification of cross-section, the relationships between crosssection, span, and construction method, the trends and achievements in construction methods for long span bridges, beam bridges (span-by-span and cantilever methods) and some aspects of cable-stayed bridges.

Published: 2017
Pages: 61

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This publication, produced by CBDG mainly for the benefit of students and young engineers, provides a comprehensive and fully illustrated Guide to concrete bridges. It describes the main bridge types and their typical bridge cross sections. It also examines aspects of design, material selection, use of pre and post tensioned construction, their history, durability, planning, inspection and maintenance, and health and safety issues.

Published: 2006
Pages: 32

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Full price: £25.00

Long Term Monitoring of Moisture in Concrete Structures

This report produced by the University of Luton aimed to provide a guide to developing a reliable cost-effective method for the long term monitoring of moisture in concrete structures. It covers the background and provides sources of information to this matter, and the currently available techniques used for moisture measurement. It also examines current and future research needs.

Published: 2000
Pages: 25

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Whole Life Costing

This publication gives a collection of papers reproduced from a 1994 seminar: Whole Life Costing - Concrete Bridges. The papers contained in this volume are the output of a CBDG Working Party and provide invaluable information about the background to the test discount rate, road user delay costs. The papers are split into four headings: Financial implications, Management of concrete bridges, Techniques and materials and Sensitive studies.

Published: 1995
Pages: 111

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Updating Highways Agency Codes, Advice and Standards relating to Bridge Testing

This report also the output of a CBDG Task Group that was commissioned by the Highways Agency to review their advice and standards in relation to testing the durability of concrete bridges. The main report discusses the most important findings, and summarises the recommendations. The Appendix contains background information in relation to updating the HA codes and Standards in Relation to testing.

Published: 1998
Pages: 31

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A Century of Concrete Bridges

This short brochure show cases the best examples of concrete bridges in the 20th century and aims to promote the excellence in the design, construction and management of concrete bridges. The objectives of this brochure are to celebrate 100 years of concrete bridges and to demonstrate the variety of design and ranges of aesthetic beauty available to the discerning client and designer when concrete has been used as the prime construction material. There are 27 examples covering road, rail and river bridges and foot bridges.

Published: 2002
Pages: 6

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Concrete Bridges - The benefits of concrete in bridge design and construction

Bridge design and construction is a challenging and exciting field, calling for creativity and ingenuity to deliver beautiful, robust and durable structures that will stand the test of time. This guide explores the reasons why concrete is the material of choice for bridge construction. It is aimed at all members of the bridge design team from client designers and constructors.

Published: 2008
Pages: 15

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Concise Eurocode 2 for Bridges

The aim of this publication is to distil from all relevant parts of BS EN 1992 and the UK National Annexes material that will be commonly used in the design of normal bridge structures. PD 6687, Part 2, the UK non-contradictory, complementary information for concrete bridge design also gives useful guidance, and material from this document is included where appropriate. This publication is based on the layout and style of Concise Eurocode 2 and will stand in its own right to meet the specific requirements of the concrete bridge designer.

Published: 2009
Pages: 128

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Concrete Footbridges

This publication is intended to be used by all members of the design and construction team in the initial stages of a footbridge project. It includes details on the main stages of footbridge design and uses case study examples to illustrate these points. This publication is intended to be read in conjunction with Footbridges pages on this website which features many more case study examples to aid specification and design.

Published: 2012
Pages: 8

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